Avoid these 5 Common Performance Pitfalls in Spring Data JPA: Practical Solutions and Tips

August 2, 2023
3 minutes to read
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In the world of JVM backend development, Spring Data JPA is an indispensable tool. It provides a convenient and powerful way to manage and manipulate data. However, like any powerful tool, there are pitfalls that can affect performance. In this article, we will explore five common performance pitfalls in Spring Data JPA and present solutions to avoid them.

1. Index Definition with Spring Data JPA

One commonly overlooked aspect when working with Spring Data JPA is the proper definition of indexes. A well-defined index can significantly speed up data access, while a missing or incorrectly defined index can lead to performance issues. In this article , you will learn how to define an index with Spring Data JPA and the considerations you should keep in mind.

@Table(indexes = {@Index(name = "my_index", columnList = "name,description")})
public class MyEntity {
    // ...

2. Eager or Lazy Loading?

The choice between Eager and Lazy Loading is another common stumbling block. While Eager Loading loads all associated entities immediately, Lazy Loading loads them only when needed. Both strategies have their pros and cons, and choosing the right strategy can have a significant impact on performance. In this article , you will learn more about the differences between Eager and Lazy Loading and when to use each strategy.

public class MyEntity {
    @OneToMany(fetch = FetchType.LAZY)
    private List<OtherEntity> otherEntities;
    // ...

3. Avoiding Redundant Data Retrievals

Another common performance pitfall in Spring Data JPA is making redundant data retrievals. Spring Data JPA provides a built-in First-Level Cache that can help avoid this problem. In this article , you will learn how to effectively use the First-Level Cache to reduce the number of database calls.

public class MyService {
    public void demonstrateFirstLevelCache(Long id) {
        MyEntity entity1 = repository.findById(id).orElseThrow();
        // ...
        MyEntity entity2 = repository.findById(id).orElseThrow();
        // ...

4. The Hi/Lo Algorithm in Hibernate

Hibernate, the default ORM of Spring Data JPA, offers several optimizations to improve performance. One of them is the Hi/Lo Algorithm, a strategy for generating database identifiers that reduces the number of database calls. In this article , you will learn more about the Hi/Lo Algorithm and how to use it in your application.

@GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.SEQUENCE, generator = "hilo_sequence")
    name = "hilo_sequence",
    strategy = "org.hibernate.id.enhanced.SequenceStyleGenerator",
    parameters = {
        @Parameter(name = "sequence_name", value = "hilo_seq"),
        @Parameter(name = "initial_value", value = "1"),
        @Parameter(name = "increment_size", value = "50"),
        @Parameter(name = "optimizer", value = "hilo")
private Long id;

5. Efficient Data Queries with Projections

Spring Data JPA offers a powerful feature called Projections, which allows you to create custom partial views of your entity classes. By using projections, you can significantly reduce the size of the data returned, thereby improving overall performance. In this article , you will learn how to use projections in Spring Data JPA to create more efficient data queries.

public interface ProductSummary {
    String getName();
    Double getPrice();

public interface ProductRepository extends JpaRepository<Product, Long> {
    ProductSummary findProductSummaryById(UUID id);

In summary, Spring Data JPA is a powerful tool that must be used with care. By avoiding these common pitfalls and harnessing the full power of Spring Data JPA, you can significantly improve your application’s performance.

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